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1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 157 (135)

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition
1945 Theatre Catalog
1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 157
Page 157

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 157

given to modifying appearance by coloration, as well as by using a satin or matte finish,


Lead is extensively used as the pure metal or as hard (antimonial) lead, in addition to its use as a coating over copper. The properties upon which its use largely depend are softness, flexibility, ease of forming, inexpensiveness, inertness toward many corroding agencies, and the soft gray patina it secures on weathering. Disadvantages are its heaviness and lack of strength.

Although it must be supported properly, lead has been used as roofing material for centuries and is well adapted to this service from the standpoint of permanence and appearance. The ease of forming makes lead suitable not only for excluding moisture from buildings at joints of roof sections, walls, windows, chimneys, and the like, even when the joints are quite complicated, but for stamping or otherwise forming into spandrels, molding, cresting and other forms. It is also adapted for use in Hashing, to cap masonry joints and chimneys, to line gutters and to make leaders, leader heads, and other rain-waterconducting items.

Up to 71/2 per cent antimony is usually added to give greater stiITness and permit the use of lighter gauges. This antimonial lead is as resistant to weathering as is pure lead. Alloys of cadmium and tin or of cadmium and antimony offer some promise of permitting lighterweight sheets to be used by improving the mechanical properties of lead. Addition of tellurium has been an aid for some uses, where greater corrosion re sistance is needed, but it is of little importance from an architectural standpoint.

Decorative statuary can be made of hard lead by casting, as well as forming the sheet. Hollow forms are sometimes cast flat, then fashioned into the desired shapes. By lead iiburningii or fusion

YANKEE lNGENUlTY of the Seabees stationed on Guam may have started a new idea in theatres, judging from these United States Navy photographs. At the left is seen a section of a Quonset used as protection from a screen, and, at the right, longitudinal halves of a 40-by-l00-foot Quonset have been applied to


along seams, lead sections are readily joined. Extruded forms are also available for trim. Die-cast lead alloys (containing tin and antimony, as in type metals) can be made with ornamental shape.

Still used, but one of the oldest architectural applications of' lead has been the glazing of windows, where lead strip and solder are used to hold the individual glass sections in place. The same construction can be used for windows of clear or colored glass in any building. Another decorative use of lead is in forming grille or filigree work by cutting designs from sheet lead and mounting between two sheets of glass. Mounting may be used against other backings Where a window effect is not required.

During the war, the lead situation was unique. Because the metal was not a critical one, miners had a hard time being deferred and as a result the lead situation became critical with a shortage developing, despite plenty of lead in the ground. Wartime demand is changing to the demand for easily-produced solder die castings for various uses, as well as for red lead and litharge for battery plates, pigments, and paints, and for tetraethyl lead for the higher octane gasolines. While marked advances have been made in lead coatings for steel, these products are not likely to replace galvanized items. With continued improvements, however, lead-coated products can be expected to be used in everincreasing amounts.


As pure metal, nickel is used only to a limited extent (as castings or electroplated surfaces), but its alloys form an important group of material for decoration. The resistance to weathering of nickel and the high nickel-copper alloys is better than that of copper, brass, and silver, but they will tarnish in exterior use.

LEAD MASK, beaten from sheet lead, demonstrates the highly workable qualities of the metal as an artistic medium. The metal, according to the Lead Industries Association, has many uses in theatres.


Inconel (at least 75 per cent nickel) combines good working properties with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. It is an attractive white metal which is adapted to many decorative architectural forms, but, like nickel, its use is limited because it is relatively expensive.


Monel, a high nickel-copper alloy (60 to 70 per cent nickel) is less expensive and more widely used. It is strong as structural steel, yet ductile enough to permit fabrication by rolling, bending, drawing, casting, or forging.

The largest use of Monel is in interior equipment and decorations. However, a

a stage to provide for 20-foot wide dressing rooms, along with property rooms, library, oftices, and recreation facilities. The Quonset is a development of the Stran-Steel Division of the Great Lakes Steel Corporation, which furnished these pictures. The company is nonvcommittal on Quonsets as pare-fabricated theatres.
1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 157