> > > >

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 236 (212)

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition
1945 Theatre Catalog
1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 236
Page 236

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 236

rugs resembling sisal but less harsh. Furniture could be covered with rayon staple weaves. It could give interesting effects to draperies and seat covers.

The Celanese Corporation of America has a saponified acetate rayon yarn, Fortisan, which is one-eighth the size and weight of silk, yet has three times the tensile strength of that natural material! Post-war applications include belting and webbing.

Yarns of cellulose acetate butyrate, introduced in 1941, are attractiVe and the finished woven material has a permanent jewel-like luster, lending itself to possible theatre use as ornamental trimming.


Velon, manufactured by the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, can be drawn into threads for weaving fabrics. Toughness, strength, resistance to attack by fungi, chemicals, or solvents are some of the properties which have made it useful for many applications. It is also practically scuff- and wear-proof. Moths, termites, and rodents avoid it. It sheds water. It is non-combustible. And, with a minimum of cleaning effort, it continues to look bright and new. Velonls greatest outlet should be in upholstery, where, short of actual vandalism, accie dent, or downright carelessness, it should outlast the furniture on which it is used.

Special service ropes and cores for wire ,

ropes have been made from extruded Velon material.

For new styling, color combinations, and designing for the future, Velon braid has possiblities of trimming of all kinds.

A water-resisting. voile, of similar origin, has been announced by the Athol Manufacturing Company. The material, weighing only two ounces to the square yard, is used by the Navy.


First produced commercially in 1938, Vinyon (trademark of the Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation) found varied uses both as a staple fiber and yarn. Upholstery fabrics, experimentally woven from Vinyon fibers appear well suited to the manufacture of waterproof goods and fireproof fabrics for curtains and drapes in public buildings.

Vinyon can be made to acquire considerable elasticity. In some cases, these yarns (Vinyon E) have been used to replace United States Rubberls Lastex. The American Viscose Corporation has produced a similar elastic yarn with a stretchability up to 400 per cent, with a 100 per cent recovery. This product has a pleasant feel and can be used for tapes, webbing, cords, and all general uses for rubber-elastic yarn.


The Dow Chemical Company developed Saran as a basic plastic raw material which, while well adapted to other plastic uses, has far-reaching significance in giving strength and durability to upholstery and forming colorful, fireproof fabrics which are also resistant to wear and chemicals, and making rust-proof screening and rot-proof rope.

SARAN, produci of the Dow Chemical Company, is a plastic which can be drawn info fibers and subsequently woven into cloth that is sfrong, durable, and fire-proof. As upholstery material, it has possibilities.

Woven Saran fabrics are suggested where extra durable textiles are needed. Heavier filaments, medium rattan-shaped, are used for upholstery materials. Saran filaments are also used with common materials, like cotton, to give special effects, color, and texture to finished products. Shrinkage, however, will be encountered in unrestrained filaments at elevated temperatures. Accordingly, Saran fabrics should not be boiled.


Interest in the formation of artificial fibers from proteins has been stimulated by the war, as well as by favorable developments since it was shown (1935) that usable fibers could be made from casein. Fibers have been made from a variety of proteinsgincluding collagen, keratin, egg albumin, gliadin, casein, and blood serum, and from protein material from soy beans, cornmeal, peanuts, tobacco, and pumpkin seeds, and certain fish. So far, however, no fiber has been reported with qualities comparable to those of such natural protein fibers as silk and wool. Up to the present time, the three proteins from which fibers have been most successfully spun are those from milk, soy beans, and cornmeal.

Casein Fibers

Casein fiber has been of considerable interest since the Italian product, Lanital, was developed a decade ago. As a wool replacement, it has been extensively produced in Europe, being known as casein fiber in Great Britain and as Tiolan in Germany. Before the war, Italy was the largest producer of the material. In this country the casein fiber, Aralac (tradename of the National Dairy Products Corporation), 'has enjoyed large-scale production, the present output being about 9,000,000 pounds a year.

These fibers have the characteristic spring, resilience, absorbence, and warmth of wool. They can be readily blended with wool, mohair, cotton, rayon, or fur in varying proportions, and are

' clothes.


less expensive than any of these materials. Lack of strength is their one important drawback.

When blended with rayon, these fibers improve the hand of the fabric, addwarmth, resilience, and wrinkle resist-i ance. One of the oldest markets for casein fibers is the feltehat manufacturing trade, where the material is blended with wool and rabbits hair.

A recent development is a casein fiber said to be finer than any wool, resembling either vicuna or cashmere.

Soybean Fibers

A new plant has been opened for the development of soybean fibers to the point of commercial production of carded and drawn yarns. War retarded the progress of this work, but developments have been going on which are concerned with increasing the wet and dry strengths of the fiber, improving resistance to chemicals, and developing special fibres for blending with rayon, cotton, and wool. Successful mill tests have been run on 50 per cent blends being used for felt, carpeting, and other purposes.

Kera'rin Fibers

Fibers resembling silk and wool in some of their properties have been made experimentally on a limited laboratory scale from keratin, the protein from chicken feathers, at the United States Department of Agricultureis Western Regional Research Laboratory. It is possible to make these fibers in dimensions varying from the diameter of spider webs to that of heavy gut strings. The main problem now is the improvement of the wet strength. Through recent developments in tanning procedure, it has been possible to improve this deficiency to a marked degree. Much study remains to be given chicken-feather-keratin fibers and fabrics before its usefulness can be fully realized.

Miscellaneous Fibers

Peanut-protein fiber is another wool substitute.

The zein (corn-meal protein) fiber can be spun into yarn, using much the same procedure as with rayon. Although this material-is still experimental, producers indicate that it has satisfactory resilience, elasticity, and wet strength.

Although not protein, mention should be made of experimental fibers produced from the bark of the California redwood. These have been used in manufacturing blends for wool suitings.


Glass fibers, comparable to nylon, Vinyon, and Velon in their resistance to deterioration by moisture and chemical and biological agents, have the added advantage of greater resistance to heat, making them particularly valuable for use in electrical insulating braids and industrial All-glass clothes provide a high concentration of fibers, and are usually used in reinforcing material when high strength is desired.

Following tests of wear and tensile strength, dimensional stability, and general durability, Transcontinental and CATALOG-1945
1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 236