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1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 238 (214)

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition
1945 Theatre Catalog
1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 238
Page 238

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 238

WOVEN STRIPS of Vinylite plastic sheeting form durable backs and seats for chairs. The material (made by the Bakelite Corporation) never gets shabby and is cleaned with a damp cloth. I? is comfortable.

that Nature could be improved upon.

These aspects of the textile problem were among the first broached by developers of military textiles. From their researches have come some of the most valued contributions, although to the theatre operator they may not be of too great or too immediate value.


There are two broad divisions of waterrepellent chemicals. One includes the wax-aluminum type of emulsion (like Aridex, of the E. I. duPont deNemours and Company, Inc.), which forms a thin film on the fibers of the cloth. However, it comes off when the fabric is laundered or dry-cleaned and must be renewed after each cleaning. The second type (represented by Zelan, also developed by the duPont company) is a durable waterrepellent material applied to the fabric before it is put to a final use.

The Shirley Institute has developed a new type of cloth which becomes more resistant as it gets wet. When such fabrics (such as the Armyis Jo-clothes, a close-weave Oxford cloth) are wet, the fibers swell, and the cloth becomes less pervious to water.

It has been said that the General Electric Company has a method whereby cloth, paper, or other material is rena dered water-proof following exposure to the vapors of a new chemical compound.

In the insulation field, water-proofing is sometimes desirable. The Monsanto Chemical Company has succeeded in waterproofing Santocel (deve10ped by General Electric) with one of the silicones (silicon resins).


Textile scientists consider shrinkage their most serious problem. Shrinkage may result from either the relaxation of the fabric or from felting.

The Sanforizing process-for the dis

covery and development of which Sanford Lockwood Cluett, vice-president of the Cluett, Peabody and Company, Inc., has been awarded the Longstreth Medal by the Franklin Institute#is applicable to all cotton fabrics, but not to woolens and rayons. Some decorative fabrics were being Sanforized before the war, but they were predominantly cotton.

Impregnation of the fabric with certain resins has been employed on cottons and rayons.

Three processes have been developed by Monsanto Chemical for treating fabrics without impairing the desirable qualities of the basic fibers. The Syton treatment removes the shine on serge, prevents runs in sheer materials, and adds life to the fabric. Reslooming makes woolens shrink-proof, wrinkle-proof, and more durable. The third process, yet unnamed, is said to impart water-repellent qualities to cotton, rayon, and wool.

Lanaset, developed by the American Cyanamid Company, stabilizes wool and wool blends, without affecting their absorbency, and reduces felting upon laundering, and prevents pilling and fuzzing.

Other resins and chemical are being made to do additional textile jobs. One is a treatment to make organdy fabrics soft or crisp, transparent or non-transparent. DuPont,s Lucite may perform a new kind of practical and decorative function in providing snag-proof Sheers.


Humidity promotes the growth of mildew, one of the most destructive enemies of cloth and textile raw materials. Although a wide variety' of fungicide is known, relatively few are suitable for use on fabrics.

Copper compounds have had wide application for this purpose. Copper nephthanate has been extensively used. Although copper ammonium fluoride is not in the same class with copper napthenate, because of its solubility in water, it has been used where leaching is not a factor to be considered.

Zinc compounds are not as toxic as those of copper, but they have been used on items where copper might prove undesirable.

The fungicidal properties of mercury compounds has long been recognized, but their use has been limited because of their toxicity to humans. However, some of the phenyl and pyridal derivatives (of which, for not dissimilar purposes, duPont, Semesan and Ceresan are classic examples) appear promising.

Acetylated cotton, as developed by the Southern Regional Laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture, is not attacked by soil micro-organisms or mildew.

Phenolic compounds, particularly the chlorinated ones, have been used with success. A newer development in rot preservatives for cotton fabrics is phenyl mercury oleate, which is odorless and does not cause stiffening or tackiness of the fabric, is non-volatile, and is not leached out.

One of the best chemicals for textile treatment is the so-called DDM (dihydroxy-dichloro-diphenyl-methane, a close relative of famed DDT). It is harmless to men and materials.



The moth-proofing of carpets, clothing, and upholstery is now a fairly established process, involving a spray or dip with one of a number of chemical compounds, many of which contain Huorine. .

An interesting approach to themoth problem is the changing of the structure of the wool itself to make it less edible to moth larvae. This "built-ind moth-proofness is still in the experimental stage and is not being applied commercially.


Only within recent years have chemicals been developed which are easy to apply and do not affect the appearance and feel of cloth.

Ammonium sulphamate (also valued as an eradicant for poison. ivy) has been employed for name-proofing draperies and cutains in theatres and other publicgathering places.

Impregnating fabrics with a mixture of antimony oxide, Vinylite VYHH (a product of the Bakelite Corporation), and methyl-ethyl-ketone imparts fire resistance to cotton and wool.

A new invention, which not only fireproofs but also water-proofs, employs an aqueous solution of iron acetate. In the drying, the iron acetate base is precipitated in the fiber or cloth and then a fireretardant-such as a non-volatile chlorinated compoundeis introduced.

Chlorinated paraflin, with antimony oxide, has been used to dame-proof where ammonium sulphamate is not suitable of its water solubility.

Chlorinated rubber is odorless and nonfiammable. Parlon, manufactured by the Hercules Powder Company, is a material of this type, and has been used in dameand water-proofing finishes for fabrics.

A new non-smoldering, fire-proof upholstery material has been introduced by the United States Rubber Company.

Some fire-prooiing treatments are also combined with mildew-proofing.


Applications of plastics to the outer surface of fabrics is not new; but, as in the making of oil cloth and rubberized raincoats, they changed the appearance and feeling of the cloth. The new method is to use vinyl butyralea plastic previously used as an interliner in safety glass hand the invisible coating is so thin that its presence can hardly be detected. Typical of the available products are Monsanto Chemicalis Safiex, Shawinigan Products Corporationis Butvar, duPontis Butacite, and Bakeliteis Vinylite X.

Of interest in the commercial production of laminated fabrics through the utilization of cellulose acetate rayon yarns. In the process, the fabriCS are made to adhere to a third fabric containing the rayon, which is placed between the other two. At the completion of the process, there is a marked stiffening of the composite fabric, due to a solidification of the adhesive. This process is used commercially for the production of uwrinklefree" collars and other items.

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 238