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1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 243 (219)

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition
1945 Theatre Catalog
1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 243
Page 243


1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 243

are subdued, probably not over 2 foot lamberts. Edge lighting of etched glass or plastic panels can be most effective. In large areas paintings are often used, but it is not teaSy to obtain for scrutiny sufficient lighting which does not build up a brightness to nullify the adaptive process.

AUDITORIUM

In a sense, we can appropriate a famous quotation and say that gWhat is past is prologue"; because, from marquee to auditorium, the passage of patrons is but preparation, both in mood and vision, for the presentation.

A fundamental is that all light sources should be concealed. In many of the smaller theatres, one finds side wall brackets decked out with colored bulbs, and, being right in the visual field, are annoying and distracting. Indirect lighting effects are the first choice, because brightness can be easily controlled. Large luminous areas in the ceiling are also effective.

0 o I \ GLASS 0R PLASTIC RlNG DULL REFLECTING SURFACE A TlNTED As DESlRED 8 REFLECTOR 0R StLveRED LAMP

FIGURE 2.*For foyers, being a circulation area, two ideas are indicated. At the left, a large luminous area is set well into' the ceiling with the dull concave reflecting surfa'ce tinted as desired. The light source is located in a trough rimming the area. At the right is shown how a glass or plastic ring used in coniunction with a reflector or silvered lamp can be utilized for delivering sumcient illumination to the foyer area.

sibly the front fifth of the auditorium should have a brightneSs about onetwentieth to one-twenty-fifth that of the screen, or about two-tenths foot lambert. There is reluctance to accept these ratios, because of the fear that illusion and concentration will suffer. However, surroundings in drive-in theatres are not dark, and experience with traveling outdoor shows has' shown that a 10 x 13-foot screen, lighted with a 1,000-watt projector, is bright enough to hold attention even in full moonlight! \

TABLE l.-Recommended footcandles and the brightness levels suggested for theatre marquees, lobbies, foyers,

auditoriums, lounges, and rest rooms.

Location

MARQUEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V

LOBBY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FOYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . Separate area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . .



Part of Auditorium . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . ..

AUDITORIUM Area adjacent to screen. Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Points of light on ceili Large ceiling areas . . . . . .. Aisles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage curtain before show . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . Ceiling and side walls before show . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

LOUNGE General area . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Reading points . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , . . . . , . . . . . . . .

REST ROOMS General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . .







Flexibility in amounts of light, as well as in color, is desirable. Ability to provide at least two levels of lighting and brightneSS will take care of the showing of pictures and the periods before and between shows, and for housekeeping. By providing color flexibility, the cooler colors, such as green and blue, can be used in warm season, and reds and yellows for colder periods. These colors, of course, would not be strong, but tints only. With the trend towards simple, functional auditoriums, light becomes a powerful factor in allowing for variety, change, freshness, without actually making any physical changes.

All of this should be accomplished with the basic requirements of vision kept uppermost in mind. Since the screen is the brightest area, let us start with that point and relate all other brightnesses to it. The standard for screen brightness, from the projection point of view is set at 20 foot lamberts maximum to 5 foot lamberts minimum, depending upon viewing angle. However, patrons do not look at a blank white screen. Therefore, the brightness to which the eyes adapt is considerably lower, as is the amount of light dux which is renected into the auditorium. For black-and-white pictures, measurements indicate an average brightness of 3 to 4 foot lamberts, and for technicolor not over half of that.

The area surrounding the screen, pos l945-THEATRE

Horizontal Footcandles

CATALOG

Brightness

30 to 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 .to 10 Sidewalls 2 foot lamberts 2 Spots of light 2 foot lamberts, ceiling and walls 1 foot; lambert 2/10 Spots of light 2 foot lamberts, ceiling

and walls 1/4 foot lambert

2/10 foot lamberts 2/10 foot lamberts

3 foot lamberts

1,4 foot lamberts 2/10 foot lamberts

5 foot lamberts

2 to 10 foot lamberts



Surrounding screen brightness can be obtained in several ways. If the proscenium is large a light colored back drop illuminated softly from above and at sides can be utilized. If the auditorium walls slope right into the screen position, vertical planes with lights concealed behind are feasible. Another method would be to utilize ultraviolet or black light to fiuoresce the surrounding area, the energy sources being easily installed and concealed in the ceiling.

Wall surfaces in the remainder of the auditorium should remain at about the same brightness as those near the screen because they occupy the perifery of vision and hence will distract if there is any

significant departure from the brightness of pattern.

The ceiling may be of higher brightness because it is more out of the line of vision. Points of light should be under 3 foot lamberts, while any large luminous surface such as the ceiling, or portions of it, should remain below 0.25 foot lambert.

The aisle lighting can be higher than is usually found because it is most useful when patrons are coming in, before adaptation has been completed in spite of our best efforts. The aisles do not enter into the visual field once the patron is seated so a brightness of two-tenths foot lamberts is desirable. Considering the average refiection of the carpeting, this means an incident illumination of 3 footcandles. It need not be uniform, but many existing arrangements are far too spotty.

Extensive experience during wartime with vision in dim surroundings has shown that blue light should be carefully handled. The retinarof the eye outside of the central portion is extremely sensitive to blue, so its use on side walls or ceiling, should be discouraged. It has also been found that colors on the reddish side aid in maintaining a state of low brightness adaptation. Thus, decorative schemes generally should lean that way.

The lighting of the auditorium at times before showing, while people are filing in can be of a higher order, but restrained. An illuminated draw curtain, itself in warm tones, is desirable. The brightness should be around 5 foot lamberts. General horizontal footcandles need not exceed one, and lighted portions of ceilings or side walls may be in the range of 2 to 10 foot lamberts. Lighted murals, niches, statuary, etc., can be incorporated, but they should be unlighted while the show is on. Fluorescing pigments and plastics, edge lighting, and the like offer many possibilities for decorative touches.

FIGURE 3.-Attention can be called to lounge and rest rooms by means of the lighting treatments indicated in this drawing. Those showu at the left and center are variations of the same idea, and provide for a shield of glass or plastic or of a louver to diffuse the light, while that at the right has the advantage of supplying some general room illumination. This idea could be repeated over entrance and enit doors, blending with decoration.





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GLASS, PLASTIC 0R LOUVER

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1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 243