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1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 244 (220)

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition
1945 Theatre Catalog
1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 244
Page 244

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 244

.ABLE 2.-Effect of daylight, white, soft white, and fi

lament light sources on various materials and pigments.

(Source: Cleaver, Oscar. Effect of fluorescent lighting on certain pigments. Illuminating Engineering 35 (9). 1940.) Item Daylight White Soft White Filament

Untanned skin, no makeup. . . . . fair acceptable preferred good

Tanned skin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fair fair preferred fair

Urltanned skin, with makeup . . . . poor fair preferred good

Blond wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . good fair preferred good

Mahogany. . . . . good good good good

Maple . . . . . . . . . fair fair good good

Greyish finish. . . good good good good

Deep blue wall color . . . . . . . . . . . . . vivid rich vivid greyed

Blue green wall color . . . . . . . . . . . . blue green grey green greyed yellowed blue

Yellow green wall color . . . . . . . . .. fresh blue green yellowed grey slightly grey yellowed pale green

Peach wall color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slightly pink normal normal normal

Pastel tan wall color. . greyish yellowish cream strongly yellowed

Cream wall color. . faded grey slightly greenish cream cream

Red. wall color. . . . . slightly bluish yellowish warm yellowish

Rese wall color. . . . bluish yellowish vivid yellowish

Deep yellow wall color . . . . . . . . . .. grayish vivid slightly grey reddish


This is purely a customer service area, but presents an opportunity to make friends for the theatre operator, and contributes to the general impression of comfort and mental satisfaction.

In general, simplicity of lighting treatment is desired. Floor lamps, pictures, mirrors, and so forth, are familiar items and acceptable. Elaborate lighting plans are not necessary. Simple ceiling fixtures, or circular coffers are always practical: The room should not be dim, but general lighting of 5 footcandles and 15 to 20 footcandles at lounging points simulate a well lighted living room.

Attention to the rest rooms can be directed by-means of lighting treatment shown in Figure 3. That in Figure 3 (c) has the advantage of supplying some general room illumination and could well be repeated over entrance and exit doors.


Illumination of not; less than 10 footcandles should be provided. This aids in housekeeping and contributes much to the patrons feeling of ease. Inasmuch as vandalism in such areas is common experience, the lighting equipment should be sturdy and out of the way as much as possible. Close fitting ceiling globes, or flush panels as in Figure 4 (left and center) are good. If the structure can be so arranged a system shown in Figure 4 (right) is excellent. The cove lights the general area, while diffusing plates allow light from the same source to flood the toilet compartments. They can be placed high enough to be out of hand reach.

For the mirrors, probably the safest design is that of fluorescent tubes encased in stout plastic or glass half cylinders placed above the mirror. When several mirrors are adjacent. it will be economy of wiring to install the lighting in a continuous strip.


Filament Lamps

Filament lamps provide light which is flattering to human skin and for which most pigments and fabrics have been matched. They can be flashed and dimmed smoothly, from full brilliance to black out. Bulbs are available with built in reflectors for spot lighting and for indirect lighting. Because the glowing filament is relatively small, good control and projection of the light is possible. They are available in commercial sizes from 6 to 1,500 watts, operating directly from 120 volt circuits.

Fluorescent Lamps

Fluorescent lamps provide light which is rich in color, as well as three working tints4aylight, white, and soft white. It is anticipated that others will be available in the future. At the lower levels of lighting used in a theatre, the daylight lamp is not flattering- to human skin. The white and warm white lamps should, where used in an area with a planned decoration scheme, have the decoration colors matched with the source.

All fluorescent lamps require a ballast which consumes wattage in addition to that marked on the lamp, and certain ones require a starter as well. They cannot be flashed or dimmed. However, they possess inherently longer life than filament lamps and, for locations where long burning hours are the rule, such as 6 to 12 hours burning for each start, their life may reach 6,000 hours.

Fluorescent lamps with starters are known as hot cathode. They require several seconds to light up. They come in sizes from 4 to 100 watts, from 6 to 60 inches in length and in diameters from % inch to 21/3 inches. The 40-watt lamp may be secured for instant starting, in which case the starter is eliminated.

FIGURE 4.-ln the rest rooms, close-fitting ceiling globes, as shown at the left and center are good. If the structure can be so arranged. a system shown at the right is excellent. The cove lights the general area, while diffusing plates allow light from the same source to flood the toilet compartments. They can be placed high enough to be out of reach from any who' might be tempted to perpetrate any vandalism, intentional or otherwise.

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Thin fluorescent lamps in %-inch and 1-inch diameters are now available in 42-, 64-, 72-, and 96-inch lengths. Depending upon the ballast used, the wattages range from 15 to 52. These lamps operate without starters.

Now coming on the market are circular fluorescent lamps in BIA-inch diameter, 20 watts; 121/2-inch diameter, 30 watts, and 16-inch diameter, 40 watts. These are complete circles and offer many decorative possibilities for theatres.

Neon Lamps

The small diameter, custom-made, series-operated fluorescent tube is generally referred to as "neon? It has long life, and can be shaped in almost any desired form. Although the efficiency is lower, this is not a ruling consideration in areas where effect is paramount. However, because the tubing is custom-made to fit a particular installation, the source of supply should be investigated in order to insure replacements when required. An ltorphanil lighting system is an expensive and irritating operating problem. This high voltage tubing can be dimmed down to about 15 per cent of full brightness.


Any lighting treatment should be analyzed from the viewpoint of bulb replacement, fixture cleaning, and repairs. When the lights are first turned on everything is new and fresh, but bulbs age, blacken, and burn out, repairs need to be made, and periodic cleaning is a necessity. If these chores can be done with reasonable facility, they will not be neglected; but if manpower, equipment, and time are needed in major quantities, then the lighting will almost always be in a chronic run-down condition.

Foresight requires (1) a lighting installation that can be flgot at" by ordinary labor, not steeple jacks, (2) equipment that is well made and whose electrical components are of high quality, and (3) choice of light sources which puts long life as a major consideration in locations that are inherently difficult to reach.

The first requirement is basically one of design and lies chiefly in the hands of the architect. The second and third are in the province of the engineer and the owner, because, if the budget is skimped, there are limits to what even the best talent can do. Of course, all three require the cooperation of the owner, architect, and engineer if the best results are to be obtained.

A factor of importance in the life of fluorescent lamps is to have the supply voltage at the design level. If voltage is low on filament lamps, they give less light but live longer. With fluorescent lamps low voltage acts principally to shorten life and to make starting difficult. A point to remember with filament lamps is that if they are used in locations difficult to reach, a lamp rated at, let us say, 120 volts, can be used on a circuit where the voltage runs at 110, prolonging the life about 25 per cent and cutting down the light by about the same amount. The color of the light will be on the reddish side but this will probably be an advantage in most decorative schemes.

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 244