> > > >

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 535 (509)

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition
1945 Theatre Catalog
1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 535
Page 535

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 535

Refresher on the Principles of First Aid

What-fo-Do and When-to-Do-lt Are Reviewed For Application in Unforeseen Emergencies

Theatre management is not entirely restricted to running cinema, either the physical property and its accoutrements or the entertainment films that are sold to the public. Frequently, accidents do occur and it is then that the management must know more than the mere entertainment field.

Self-education in first aid can be of inestimable value, but for those theatre owners and managers ever on the lookout for new ways in which to increase service to their patrons, the Red Cross suggests personnel training courses in first aid and accident prevention.

To show that such courses will benefit theatre owners and management, as well as the public, the American Red Cross contributes the following facts: ( 1) The training is an excellent safeguard in event of disaster; (2) it will immeasurably aid in handling those everyday emergencies which are liable to occur among personnel and patrons, such as fainting, falls, hysteria, heart attack, sprains and bruises; and (3) it serves to win good will by furnishing evidence to all that the management is concerned with the safety and welfare of employees and public.

Where first-aid training of ushers, restroom attendants and other theatre employees has been undertaken, the Red Cross states, results have more than repaid expenditure of time and effort. A chain of moving picture theatres in Virginia recently had all its ushers trained by the Red Cross in first aid, with resulting good publicity and favorable reaction of the public.

The Red Cross offers three progressive courses in first aid: the Standard (20 hours), Advanced (10 hours), and Instructor (15 hours) courses. For theatre managers who wish to organize for effective action in case of large-scale emergencies or disaster, the Red Cross suggests the formation of a Red Cross First Aid Detachment. Such a detachment is made up of from 15 to 50 persons with Advanced First Aid training. It offers the advantage of a trained, unified group always available and ready for immediate action.

In the past, the Red Cross points out, groups of actors have frequently displayed an interest in such a first aid setup. At the Theatre Mart in Los Angeles the cast of "The Drunkard" organized a First Aid Detachment shortly after Pearl Harbor. Although not called upon to act as a unit in a large-scale emergency, it was prepared and ready. It did function actively and cared for numerous minor injuries to personnel and audience. The actors feel that the detachment is a good morale-builder.

The Red Cross Home Accident Prevention course (12 hours) and the Junior Accident Prevention course (15 hours), the latter for boys and girls of 12 through

roas-rHEAras CAIAlOG

14, both deal with the discovery and correction of hazards such as exist in theatres. Employes taking the courses become hazard-conscious and hazard-wise and are therefore able and anxious to eliminate dangers in the theatre building.

Those interested in organizing classes in any of the first aid or accident prevention courses or in forming a First Aid Detachment may obtain information regarding requirements and training by communicating with their Red Cross chapter.

That the theatre owner and manager may have ready-reference, firefresherit material handy, this article has been prepared. What follows has been, by permission, abridged from the pamphlet, itFirst Aid," published by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, which further cooperated by making available the illustrative material.


1. Take charge. A life may be lost for want of someone to take charge and give first aid when an accident has happened.

2. Examine the victim carefully and thoroughly to find out how seriously he is hurt. Do not be satisfied with noting only the injuries that are plain to be seen. If necessary, rip or cut the clothing from the injured part to get a clear view. Look especially for wounds, broken bones, burns, signs of shock. Treat the most serious injury first. Severe bleeding, stoppage of breathing, and poisoning are the big three emergencies which require instant first aid to prevent death.

3. Move the victim only if absolutely necessary. and then with the greatest caution. Rough handling will make a bad matter worse. In case of simple fracture, for example, one or both ends of the broken bone may be pushed through the skin

,if the victim is not handled properly.

4. Act promptly but not hastily. Decide what needs to be done and do it. Handle various injuries as suggested in these columns. Keep calm and quiet. Do whatever is necessary to save the victimis life and to keep him warm and quiet, but no more.

5. Send for a doctor. In calling for the doctor, tell him where the victim is, the nature of the injuries, and what you have done.


All serious injuries and most slight ones cause shock. Shock is dangerous. Measures should be taken to prevent it or to lessen its severity as soon as urgent life-saving measures, such as the control of severe bleeding, have been started.

Signs of shock may not appear for some time after an injury. A person in a state of shock seems stupid and loses interest in what is happening, or he may

be partly or totally unconscious. However, if there is bleeding, he may act restless and excited. His skin is pale and covered with a cold, clammy sweat; his lips and nails may be blue. His pulse is rapid and hard to find, and his breathing is feeble. The victim usually complains of feeling cold.

FIRST AID. The development of shook may be prevented, or its severity lessened, by taking the following measures in all cases of serious injury. Keep the victim warm and lying down until the doctor arrives. Lay him fiat on his back with his head level with the rest of his body unless some other position is advised for a particular injury. Keep him comfortably warm with blankets placed under and over him. If he still complains of feeling cold, or if the environment is cold, supply external heat also in the form of hot-water bottles or some other heating device tested on your own forearm. Either chilling or overheating is harmful. If the victim is conscious and if there are no signs of external or internal bleeding or head injury, it may be helpful to give him a stimulant such as aromatic spirits of ammonia (1/2 teaspoonful in 1/2 glass of water) or sweetened hot coffee or tea or hot water.


A Wound is any break in the skin or mucous membrane, either within the

body or on its surface. In dealing with an external wound, the first and most important thing to do is to stop severe bleeding if it is present.

Blood Rowing in quick spurts means that an artery has been cut; a steady flow means that a vein has been cut.

Pressure Methods

Bleeding from an artery can usually be stopped by pressing with the hand or fingers at the spot where the artery crosses a bone. The main pressure points for the control of arterial bleeding are shown in Figures 1 to 7. Pressure should be made on the pressure point nearest the wound between the wound and the heart.

Bleeding from a vein (steady flow). can usually be stopped by bandaging a compress in place over the wound or by pressing with the fingers near the edges of the wound until a compress can be obtained. Elevating the wounded limb also helps to control bleeding from a vein in an arm or leg.

Use of a Tourniquet

So many serious results, including the necessity of amputating a limb, have followed the use of a tourniquet that only when the pressure methods just de
1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 535