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1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 537 (511)

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition
1945 Theatre Catalog
1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 537
Page 537

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 537

FIGURE 5.-To stop bleeding from lower two-thirds of the arm and hand, place fingers half-way between the arm pit and the elbow on the inside of the arm, and press fingers and thumb toward each other with the arm bone in between. (If the arm is fat, place your own hand beneath it.) Raising the arm helps.

(2 percent solution), and when the iodine is dry, cover it with a sterile (germfree) cloth pad, or compress.

If iodine is the antiseptic selected, remember that the iodine solution becomes stronger with age owing to the evaporation of alcohol. Therefore, old solutions should not be used. In purchasing iodine, ask the druggist for a 2-percent solution, as ordinary tincture of iodine is too strong.

A supply of individual sterile gauze compresses in sealed packages (for sale at any drugstore) should be kept in the first-aid kit or medicine cabinet in every home. If such compresses are not at hand, scorch a piece of clean, unstarched cloth with a hot iron. Old pieces of linen so treated make good compresses.

A sterile compress becomes non-sterile (contaminated) when it is touched with the fingers or any object not sterilized. Hence, in unfolding or unrolling the compress, take care to touch only the outer surface and place the inner untouched surface over the wound. Make sure that the compress is large enough to cover the wound completely. Hold it in place by a bandage or adhesive tape.

Punctured and lacerated Wounds

Deep wounds caused by narrow, pointed instruments, such as nails, ice picks, scissor blades, and pitchfork tines; lacerated or torn wounds; and wounds caused by explos10ns of gunpowder, are particularly dangerous. The germs lodged in a wound of this kind cannot be reached and destroyed by an antiseptic, and the wound is almost sure to become infected unless it is cleaned out by a physician.

The germs of lockjaw (tetanus), which thrive without the presence of oxygen, are especially apt to multiply and manufacture toxin (poison) in deep wounds with narrow or sealed openings, and in lacerated wounds with crannies or pockets from which air is shut out. Besides treating the wound itself, the physician may wish to give tetanus antitoxin. Tetanus antitoxin must be given immedia ately to insure its effectiveness.


Asphyxia may be caused in a number of different ways. Some of the more common ones are ( 1) obstruction of the air passages either from without, as in


smothering and strangulation, or from within, as in choking and submersion, so that air cannot reach the lungs; (2) paralysis of the respiratory center of the brain, as in electric shock, the swale lowing of drugs which act as nerve poisons, and the breathing of excessive amounts of anesthetic gases like chloroform, so that the breathing muscles cannot work; (3) interference with the oxygen-carrying function of the red blood corpuscles, as in the inhalation of a gas which acts as a chemical asphyxianw for example, carbon monoxide; and (4) lack of oxygen in the air breathed, as in storage bins or airtight vaults, where oxygen has been replaced by carbon dioxide through the process of oxidation.

Choking and Strangulation

Rescue by quickly cutting any constriction around the neck or, if something is lodged in the throat or windpipe, by passing a finger into the throat and booking the finger around the object in order to remove it. If the object is deeper down and cannot be removed by the finger, slap the victim vigorously on the back between the shoulder blades. While you are doing this, the victim can assist by lying crosswise on a bed on his abdomen with his head and shoulders hanging over the side. If the victim is a child, hold him upside down by the heels and slap his back.

FIRST. AIDe-Send for a doctor at once, or rush the victim to a doctors office or hospital, if these measures do not work. If, after the object has been removed, the victim is not breathing, start artificial respiration immediately.

Electric Shock

Electric shock occurs when an electric current passes through a person's body

FIGURE 8.-A tourniquet is used in cases of severe bleeding not stopped by application of pressure as inv dicated. It should be used only in emergencies and then only with the greatest care and attention to the victim. The tourniquet should be loosened every 15 minutes, lest mortification of the distal portions set in.

from a conductor of electricity to a ground. The conductor may be an electrically charged wire or rail, or faulty electrical equipment. When a person is struck by lightning his body acts as the conductor. The victim of electric shock suffers sudden loss of consciousness, stoppage of breathing due to paralysis of the respiratory center in the brain, and possibly severe burns.

Contact must be broken immediately between the victim and the electrical conductor. Do not touch the victims skin or clothing (which may be damp with perspiration) with your bare hands while he is still in contact with the current. It is as dangerous for you to touch his skin or his clothing, if it is damp, as to touch the wire or rail itself. Turn off the current if you are near the switch or powerhouse. If this cannot be done, stand on a folded dry coat or on newspapers

FIGURE 6.-Bleeding from the shoulder, armpit and upper part of the arm is stopped by placing your thumb or fingers in the hollow behind the victim's collarbone, and press against the upper surface of the first rib, see above.

FIGURE 7.-Bleeding from the thigh, leg, or foot is stopped by placing the heel of hand iust below the victim's groin at the point indicated, and press downward, as shown in the illustration below. These points should be second nature to the trained theatre attache, since it is never known when knowledge at this sort will be needed.

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 537