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1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 538 (512)

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition
1945 Theatre Catalog
1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 538
Page 538

1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 538

or a dry board, and with one hand protected with several thicknesses of dry cloth or newspaper or with tested rubber gloves graSp a dry part of the victims clothing and drag him away from the conductor. It may be possible to push a live wire off the victim with a dry wooden stick, or to pull the victim off a live wire or rail with a piece of dry rope or handkerchief looped over his foot or hand.

FIRST AID#After contact has been broken with the electrical conductor there is no danger of shock in touching the victim. A person who has been struck by lightning may be touched at once, since the electric charge has been expended into the ground. If the victim is not breathing, start artificial respiration immediately and have a physician summoned. Apply dressings to the bums, if there are any, after the victim has been revived.

Inhalation of Carbon Monoxide

This odorless, deadly gas combines with the oxygen-carrying pigment (hemoglobin) of the red blood corpuscles more rapidly, more easily, and more firmly than oxygen can. Hence it causes asphyxiation by keeping the blood corpuse cles from taking up oxygen from the breathed-in air.

Manufactured gas used for lighting, cooking, and heating contains carbon monoxide. It may escape from ill-fitted gas water heaters and gas stoves, loose gas fixtures and valves, leaky gas tubing, and gas furnaces not connected to outdoor air by fiues. Many people think that accidental asphyxiation from manufactured gas occurs only when there is a leak. This is not true, as carbon monoxide may be given off when the gas is burning. Natural gas, which normally does not contain carbon monoxide, may produce it when the flame comes in contact with cold metal, as when a large boiler of water is put over a gas flame.

Carbon monoxide is also produced in the burning of all carbon-containing substances, such as coal, oil, wood, and gasoline, when there is not enough oxygen present for complete combustion. It is present in the smoke from burning buildings; in the fumes from coal stoves or furnaces, especially when they have been banked for the night; and in the exhaust fumes from automobiles. It is important to guard against the accumulation of carbon monoxide in enclosed places, such as bedrooms and garages, by providing adequate ventilation. The motor of an automobile should never be started in the garage when the door is closed. In rescuing a victim of carbonmonoxide asphyxiation, make sure that you protect yourself against the gas. If a protective mask is on hand, use it. If not, tie a rope around your waist and instruct someone on the outside to hold the other end and rescue you in case you fall. A wet cloth tied over your mouth and nose is useless.

FIRST AIDeGet the victim to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped or comes in gasps, start artificial respiration and continue until natural breathing is restored or until the doctor pronounces him dead.

The recovery of a victim of gas asphyxiation is favored by administering


oxygen, or, better still, a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide stimulates faster and deeper breathing while the oxygen is driving the carbon monoxide out of the blood. Police and fire departments and some hospitals have oxygen-carbon dioxide inhalators. Send for one, if possible, but remember that the inhalator will not restore breathing in an asphyxiated person. Artificial respiration must be started and continued until the victim breathes naturally. Then he should be allowed to continue breathing through the inhaler of the inhalator until he is fully conscious.

During the process of resuscitation and for some time afterward keep the victim warm and aid circulation by rubbing the limbs toward the heart. Insist on complete rest for some time after natural breathing begins. Even slight exercise is dangerous.

Lu ng-lrrifunt Gases Inhaled

Some gases which may be inhaled, such as certain industrial gases and war gases, have an irritant or corrosive action on respiratory tract. Among them are ammonia and nitrous oxide fumes, hydrogen sulphide, chlorine, phosgene, and mustard gas. Persons who have been exposed to irritant gases must be made to lie down at once and keep absolutely quiet. The action of some. of these gases may be delayed, and the victim may show few or no symptoms immediately after exposure. However any exertion whatever, even sitting up, may have serious or even fatal results. Since an irritant gas inflames the lungs, it is dangerous to give artificial respiration. Under no circumstances should it be resorted to unless the victim has stopped breathing, and then only with great caution.


The signs and symptoms of poisoning caused by swallowing a poisonous substance vary with the poison taken. Nausea, vomiting, pain, diarrhea, collapse, and convulsions are some of the possible immediate effects. Sometimes the victim becomes unconscious. When a poison has been swallowed, it may be possible to determine its nature from an examination of the surroundings or from what the victim tells you. But do not lose time trying to discover what the poison was. Every moment of delay means that more and more of the poison is being absorbed into the system. Unless prompt action is taken, the victim may soon be beyond help. Call a physician at once and, while awaiting him, start first aid.

FIRST AID-Dilute the poison and wash out the stomach by inducing vomiting, unless a strong acid or caustic alkali in concentrated form has been swallowed or the victim is unconscious. Both of these measures are accomplished by giving the victim an emetic. An emetic is a substance that causes vomiting. Some emetics which may readily be prepared in practically every theatre are as follows:

1. Warm salt water*1 tablespoonful of table salt to one glass of warm water.

2. Warm mustard water-1 teaspoon ful of dry mustard to one glass of warm water.

3. Soapy water*a piece of mild abap'


shaken up in warm water to make a good suds.

If it is necessary to induce vomiting after the victim has swallowed several glassfuls of the emetic, tickle the back of his throat. Vomiting should be induced repeatedly until the fluid coming from the stomach is clear.

In addition to diluting the, poison and getting it out of the stomach by inducing vomiting, an antidote may be given if is known and on hand. An antidote is a remedy which counteracts (works against) the poison. The antidote for many of the ordinary household preparations containing poisons is given on the label.

In all cases keep the victim warm and

quiet after everything possible has been

done to remove or counteract the poison. A soothing drink, such as the raw whites 0f two or three eggs in a little water, one or two glasses of milk, or a thin paste of starch or flour and water should be given if the victim can swallow. A stimulating drink, such as hot coffee, may be helpful. If the victim has stopped breathing, give artificial respiration at once.

Antidotes for Some Common Poisons

Acids, StrongeHydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, and so forth. (See under Alkalis.)

Alkalis, CausticeAmmonia, caustic lime (quicklime), caustic soda, caustic potash, lye, etc. The victims lips, mouth, and tongue are stained and burned. Usually it is unwise to force vomiting if the poison was taken in concentrated form, for fear of rupturing the corroded walls of the esophagus and stomach. After diluting and counteracting the poison as described below, give a soothing drink, such as a wineglassful of olive oil, a glass of milk, or flour and water. To dilute and counteract an acid swallowed, give two glassfuls of diluted milk of magnesia, or two tablespoonfuls of baking soda in a pint of water, or finely divided chalk in water, or lime in water (if necessary, scrape plaster off the walls, powder it, and mix it with water). To dilute and counteract a caustic alkali swallowed, give a wine glassful of vinegar or the juice of four lemons in a pint of water.

ArseniceInduce vomiting repeatedly by giving several glassfuls of warm mustard water or warm salt water. In the meantime, send to the drugstore for freshly prepared hydrated oxide of iron and magnesia, the official arsenic antidote. When it comes, give the victim a wineglassful and induce vomiting again.

Mercury-Give the whites of from three to five eggs immediately, and then induce vomiting repeatedly by giving warm mustard water or warm salt water.

Carbolic AcidePhenol and preparations containing it. Immediately give soapsuds or two tablespoonfuls of Epsom salts in a pint of water, and follow with enough lukewarm water to induce vomiting. Then give hour and water to soothe the injured tissues. Do not give oils or fats. Alcohol checks the caustic action of carbolic acid, and skin burns caused by it should be washed with diluted alcohol. whiskey, or brandy. But alcohol should not be given for carbolic acid taken in CAYAlOG-l945
1945 Theatre Catalog, 4th Edition, Page 538