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1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition, Page 154 (142)

1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition
1947-48 Theatre Catalog
1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition, Page 154
Page 154

1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition, Page 154

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/3/A' COLD cone) MAME . um: CLIPPEL) Tt kiwing ANGLES


FIGURE ls-The hangers shouid be securely attached to the structural root members by means of special clamps and stove bolts, and to the runners by means of bolts through holes punched in the hanger and the

straphangers are under tension and carrying their portion of the load after plastering is completed. Across the main iurring angles or chan anqle. Special care should be exercised to be sure that these iron

to conserve heat in the winter and the refrigeration load in the summer, these openings should be provided with weather stripping.

The exit doors should be sufficiently recessed inside the building lines to prevent them from swinging over the public way or into the line of travel of the exit courts.

Exits From Upper Levels

If the auditorium is a stadium type, mezzanine, or balcony, it may be required to provide emergency exits from an upper level. These exits may be necessary leading from the highest level, at the level of the cross aisle if the stadium or balcony contains more than 15 rows of seats, or from the lowest level. In instances where there are larger balconies, these exits on each side may be mandatory. These requirements vary with the local codes but in any event suiiicient emergency exits should be installed to provide for safe and quick exit from these areas. These exits will lead either to exterior fire escapes or to enclosed fire towers, leading directly to the outside grade levels.

Fire towers should be enclosed with 4-hour masonry walls and have openings closed with approved fire doors.

In the case of fire escapes, it may be necessary in order not to restrict the exit courts, to turn the fire escape back inside the building and continue to the grade level as a fire tower.

Some codes will require that all exterior fire escapes be protected by a fireproof roof covering. Corrugated iron is generally acceptable for this purpose. In any event the construction should be ice-proof, by constructing the treads of square-shaped iron bars with one edge turned up, which method will cause the ice to crack oft" when stepped on.

Counter-balanced construction to prevent access from the ground level for the lowest flight of the fire escape will eliminate nuisance on the fire escape and tampering with the exit doors.

Each fire escape will require a platform at the level of the exit door sills and these should be so constructed that the exit doors, when opened, will not interfere with the path of travel. Widths of platforms and stair runs of fire escapes are generally stipulated by the local or state codes, or both, and vary with the number of persons they are designed to serve. In no case, however, should the clear width of the platforms and the stair rims be less than 3 feet.

Seating Layout

The most important item in this category is, without a doubt, the seating.

Several important factors enter into the seating installation to achieve the best results, namely, the type, construction, and upholstery of the chairs, the width of the seats between the arms, their spacing back to back, the slope of the door, and their arrangement in the rows to afford good sight lines and the minimum interference in the viewing of the picture.

The standard theatre chair measures 19, 20, 21, or 22 inches from center to center of the arms. Unless the theatre management wishes to feature extra wide seats, the average installation will use 20-inch chairs, but it will be necessary to use 19-, 21-, and 22-inch chairs in order to produce straight aisle lines and to keep the aisles of legal width as required by the different codes which govern.

The variation in widths can also be distributed to efTect a stagger in any tw0 consecutive rows to improve the sight line, This is especially desirable in the bank of seats in the center portion of the auditorium.

Nineteen-inch seats should be used sparingly, and if the seating layout is properly made, these can be largely confined to the front rows which are most frequently occupied by children.

Thirty-two inches from back to back of the seats is the minimum that should be used for orchestra seating, and 33

nels, 2-inch cold rolled channels, 12 inches on center are attached by means of approved wire clips. Metal lath is attached by wire ties.

inches from back to back for the mezzanine or balcony.

The seat rows should be laid out on arcs of concentric circles. (See Figure 17.) The location of the center of these circles will be determined by the width of the house, location of emergency exits, and so forth. The orchestra floor along each of these concentric arcs will be level in order to maintain the same sight line for all seats in the row.

In order to lay out the orchestra floor to the proper elevation, it will be necessary that several variables be taken into consideration.

Floor Elevation

The elevation of the floor at thelast row of seats will be determined primarily by the established elevation of the curb and the sidewalk at the front entrance. The level at the last row can, however, be adjusted to a limited degree by ramping the floors in the spaces between the sidewalk and the standee rail. These ramps should not be too steep and are usually limited by the governing codes, but should never be greater than 1 :12. In some cases, when the proper elevation at the last row cannot be attained completely by the use of ramps, it may be necessary to raise the last two or three rows above the level of the aisles, employing steps for entrance into the seat banks. This method should be used only as a last resort, and the steps resulting must be well lighted by means of steplights to prevent accidents.

If the theatre occupies a corner lot with required emergency exits on the side street, the fixed elevations of the curb and the sidewalk at these exits will have to be met as nearly as possible by the curve of the orchestra floor. In many cases it will be necessary in ordCi- to lelelpllSh this, to make use of slight ramps and warps in the side or cross aisles, or in some severe cases the use of steps at the exits, which constitute a hazard in case of a panic and should be avoided. This is another

1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition, Page 154