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1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition, Page 277 (263)

1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition
1947-48 Theatre Catalog
1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition, Page 277
Page 277

1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition, Page 277

Quality in Carpeting and Its Maintenance

A Proper Balance of All Physical Factors And the Correct Care Make Good Rugs Good

What makes a good carpet good?

No one element of construction makes .a rug, but the proper coordination and balancing of all elements are necessary to produce a fabric of maximum value. Therefore, we are going to point out some of the equally important factors of materials and construction which make the rug.

Inasmuch as the sale of any woven floor covering is just the beginning of a customer-dealer relationship, it ,is necessary to understand how the factors of pitch, rows per inch, pile height, yarn size, and quality of materials are related to each other and must be coordinated in order to produce the most satisfactory fabric within any competitive price bracket.


Before going any further, we should consider the meaning of the factors which are involved.

Pitch is defined as the number of com struction units ends to the inch of width. Actually, in practical floor covering specifications, is is taken as the number of pile ends per unit of standard 27-inch width. Terms of pitch used commonly in the industry are 180, 189, 192, 216, and 256.

Rows per inch is the number of rows of yarn tufts in one inch of length. These are counted in the warpwise direction,

Pile height is self-explanatory, the height of pile being measured from the top surface of the back to the top surface of the pile, that is, it does not include the thickness of the back.

Pile yarn is defined as the yarn forming the loops or tufts (cut loops) of a pile fabric.

Now let us review two equally wellknown Wilton fabrics. Royal Karnak and Mohawk Saxony have been on the market for a long time and each is famous for its durability. Karnak is 256 pitch with a large number of wires to the inch, and uses a relatively lightweight worsted yarn in low-pile construction. On the other hand Saxony is 180 pitch, a medium number of wires per inch, using a heavy woolen yarn with a high pile.

No two fabrics could be more definitely opposite in type, yet by the correct use of materials and construction, each in its own particular method produces a fabric of unusual Wearing qualities.

From this it may be easily seen that no one of the factors is all-important, but rather it is the balanced use of all of them that makes satisfactory merchandise.

Pile Densiin One important thing to remember is that the criterion for a fabricis wearing quality is expressed by the formula, D2h, where I) is the density of the pile material and h is the pile height.


HOWARD P. HILDRETH .Mohawl; Carpet Mills. Inc.

It is obvious from the formula that the density, being squared, is the dominating factor. For instance, if we had a fabric with a density of 30 and a pile height of 0.2 inch and we increased the pile height by 50 per cent, we would expect a 50 per cent increase in durability. However, if we kept the pile height the same and increased the density by 50 per cent we could expect a 125 per cent increase in durability.

THE WILTON is recognized as a luxury fabric.

The whole purpose of going through this detail is to impress upon the reader that the density of the pile surface is very important and that it depends entirely upon three factors: pitch, rows per inch, and size of pile yarn. Many times the tufts to the square inch, which is the product of the pitch per inch and the rows per inch, is erroneously considered to be the density. The fallacy of this can easily be shown by drawing a hypothetical comparison which, although it may be fantastic in conception, nevertheless, will show just how important a part the size of the yarn plays in de

The finer and more expensive worsted yarn grades

provide a detail and delicacy in design, through the use of the Jacquard pattern control, no! possible to obtain in any other of the standard types. In the worsted Wilton, pictured above and diagrammed below, the surface yarn buried in the body of a Jacquard Wilton weave (usually seen through the buck) and its consequent sturdy construction are its outstanding characteristics. As Wilton is woven in worsted. in greater than other types, it is specified for cleanliness. In worsted Wilton, each fiber in the face yarn is tied into the buck construction. This makes it particularly suitable where fluff would be objectionable. where cleanliness is paramount, and under conditions of frequent cleaning. In the photographs are seen two cotton chain warps, stufter warp yarns, three binding and filling weft yarns, and two to six woolen or worsted surface yams running warpwise. In the drawing is a cross section diagram of cr five-frame, three-shot worsted \Nilton fabric with three slutfer warps. (The text of his article has been prepared from publications-"Five Sleps to Carpet Quality" and "Keep It Clean" (printed for general distribution to theatres and other users of carpets)-of the Mohawk Carpet Mills. Inc., with the pictures and drawings provided by the company from its manual on woven floor coverings

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1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition, Page 277