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1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition, Page 278 (264)

1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition
1947-48 Theatre Catalog
1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition, Page 278
Page 278

1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition, Page 278

THE AXMINSTER is distinguished by the double row oi weft binding and filling yams. inserted bv a needle thrust (easily noted on the back). It can be rolled lengthwise but not crosswise. The better grades provide deep pile and closseness of weave. The cross section (below) of a single chain Axminster shows three double shots of weft and two stutter yarns, producing a heavy ribbed effect.

termining fabric value. Picture, if you can, a fabric of very close weave, say 256 pitch by 13% rows to the inch, but using as a pile yarn a thread no larger than the common variety of sewing thread. Now compare this imaginary fabric with another of lesser construction, such as a 214 pitch by 71/2 rows to the inch but using a heavy, full, thick yarn. It is obvious that the first fabric would be worthless, while the second would be exceptionally good. (Actually, density of pile material for mill purposes is measured in terms of grain weight of pile wool per cubic inch.)

Backing Is Important

The part of any rug or carpet which has to resist wear is the pile yarn. We have previously shOWn the important part this plays in the make-up of a fabric, so now is a good time to discuss some of its characteristics. Before doingr so, however, we will digress long enough to point out that a rug or carpet is always a structural product. While the pile yarn is the part which has to resist wear, it is materially aided in doing this by being adequately supported by strong backing materials which form the foundation for any rug or carpet. As an example consider the Chenille rug in the Roxy Theatre which was replaced only

after twelve years of continuous service, during which time more than one hundred million people walked over it. To an appreciable extent this fine record may be attributed to the support given the pile yarn by the characteristically heavy and firm Chenille type of back.

Resuming the discussion of pile yarn, the first consideration is the quality of the wool from which the yarn is spun. Woolen fioor coverings are made of a blend of foreign wools grown in such places as the Andes Mountains of South America, in India, Scotland, Ireland, Iceland, New Zealand, Iraq, Tibet, and Mongolia. Each of these wools has certain desirable characteristics and by use of the right proportion of each, these qualities are imparted to the pile yarn. The Mohawk Carpet Mills spins all the yarns which go into the finished product, thus enabling them to take every advantage in the selection of wools, and to control the blending of them to assure quality stock.

After blending, the wools must be gently scoured to remove the grease and dirt which have accumulated. This process must be carefully controlled in every respect to assure proper cleaning without damage to the wool fibre. The amount of scouring solution used must be scientifically correct and the tempera ture must be held to the exact degree necessary to accomplish this scouring to the best advantage. Drying the wool fibre after scouring must also be carefully controlled. The use of too high a temperature or submitting it to heat for too long a period, will result in damage to the fibre which may affect the serviceability of the fabric in which it is eventually woven,

To attain the best coverage and appearance of fabric, yarns manufactured from these wools must be full, lofty, and of maximum diameter consistent with adequate strength. This is done through correlating the factors of yarn size, singles and plying twist, and tensile strength to obtain the best balanced yarn for any specific purpose.

Question of Ply

Occassionally the question arises of whether a carpet yarn should be 2-ply or 3-ply. It apparently makes no difference, so far as a fabricls ability to resist wear and tear is concerned, whether the yarn it employs is 2-ply or 3-ply. Every manufacturer of a comprehensive line of Woven Hoor coverings finds it necessary to produce yarns in 2-ply, 3-ply and 4-ply. Three-ply yarns are sometimes required to obtain stria effects where a predominance of a certain color is required, and both 3-ply and 4-ply yarns are necessary to make heavy type fabrics like our Saxony and Scotia grades. However, in the vast majority of those rug and carpet grades on the market today, which together account for the major volume of sales, the use of 2-ply and 3-ply yarns appears to be about evenly divided.

The important consideration is to get the required material content into the surface of the rug, and if all other factors concerning the yarn-such as quality of Wool stock, blending, finished yarn size, tensile strength, and so fortheare equal, it would appear to make no difference whether the finished yarn was 2-ply or 3-ply.

The formula 09/1, for comparative wearing quality, previously mentioned, was derived after many years of research and study of the measurement of fabric resistance to wear, As explained, the density (1)) is found from the pitch, rows per inch, and yarn size. It is significant that, with all the study given to this problem, it was never found necessary to include a term in the formula to compensate for the ply of the yarn.

Pile Height

Every manufacturer has at his (lisposal the means for varying the pile height over a wide range. Certain fabrics specifically require definite pile heights. Closely woven worsted grades, for instance, have a low pile; Saxony and loom-tufted Wiltons call for a high pile. However, in all instances the choice of pile height is left to the judgment and discretion of the manufacturer to produce a grade of maximum value within competitive price brackets.

We see, therefore, that quality in a rug is the result of several factors working together. A good rug is not good because its pile is deep or its pitch is high, or because of many rows per inch. These three factors, together with the quality of materials used and the


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1947-48 Theatre Catalog, 6th Edition, Page 278