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1950-51 Theatre Catalog, 9th Edition, Page 423 (401)

1950-51 Theatre Catalog, 9th Edition
1950-51 Theatre Catalog
1950-51 Theatre Catalog, 9th Edition, Page 423
Page 423

1950-51 Theatre Catalog, 9th Edition, Page 423

when sanded, yields a smooth even surface for the application of the finishing coats. Desirable characteristics in a surfacer are its ability to fill, its easy sanding qualities, and ability to hold any finishing coatsethat is, not being so porous that finishing coats have a tendency to be absorbed or dulled.

Wood sealer has many of the qualities of both primer and surfacer.


The majority of equipment troubles are directly traceable to neglect or to improper cleaning of equipment after use.

Spray Equipment

The main point in spray-gun maintenance is to keep it clean.

Clean the gun thoroughly with a brush and solvent on the outside. Spraying solvent through the gun will usually suffice.

Never leave the entire gun in solvent over night, as the solvent will remove grease from packing and moving parts, thereby causing the gun to spit.

If the gun spits, it could be that (1) the packing has become hardened or loose; (2) the fiuid tip gasket does not make a perfect seal; and (3) a leak in the fluid tube from the gun to cup air into the fluid passages where only paint should be.

The hole in the top of the cup attachment must be open at all times or it will be impossible for the contents to get out.

After using synthetic resin enamel (gum lacquer) especially, the gun should be cleaned immediately. If synthetic hardens in the fluid passages of the gun and fluid tube, it will be very diHicult to remove,

Some users, instead of cleaning the gun thoroughly every night, hang the entire gun over a can of solvent with only the spray head immersed. In this way the packing is not harmed and the enamel is kept soft until the gun is used the next morning.

One of the main causes of inferior results in spraying is improper air pressure for the various materials used. Do not use higher air pressure at the spray nozzle than is necessary. Too high pressure creates an excessive mist about the main body of the spray and causes inefficient operation and poor results.

Success in spraying is largely due to the operator and his gun. If the operator uses too much or too little air pressure, orange peels or runs will result instead of a smooth finish. Enough material should be applied so that the surface appears wet, but not heavy enough to cause runs and sags.

Materials must be strained into the spray container through cheesecloth or wire screen of such mesh or gauge as to remove all lumps, skins, and anything else which might clog the spray head.

While different kinds of materials of about the same viscosity can be sprayed with the same spray head, it is recommended that for more satisfactory results, spray heads be used for materials of widely different types,

Oil and water in the fresh-air supply are very detrimental to any finish. If an approved type of oil and Water separator and air regulator is usedeand cleaned at frequent intervalswthis trouble can be eliminated.


The Type MBS gun, with No. 30 EF spray head, will spray synthetic enamels as well as the cellulose lacquers.


After a new brush has been used in varnish it should be kept in a brush keeper, suspended so that the bristles are all immersed in a brush-keeper varnish, a finishing varnish made without driers and, therefore, practically nondrying. Any varnish manufacturer can supply both the keeper and the varnish. This is of prime importance, as almost any deviltry may result from the use of a dirty or improperly kept brush. Never keep brushes in linseed oil nor in turpentine, nor washed with the latter. If washed or kept in turpentine, seedy varnish will usually result.

' Brushes used with gum lacquers may be cleaned with mixed solvents supplied for the purpose by the manufacturers, or with a mixture of one-half each of alcohol and acetone. It is advisable not to use the same brush with gum lacquers and nitrocellulose lacquers.

For cellulosic lacquers, it is still safest to depend on the manufacturer for the proper cleaner, although this same 50-50 alcohol-acetone mixture will serve in most cases.

Brushes which have been used with oil paints should never be used with varnishes or lacquers of any type.


Until compartively recently, the products of the paint, varnish, and lacquer industry were generally assumed to have only two main purposes: First, the protection of surfaces and, second, decoration.

Color and Functionalism

Within the past few years, science has established a third important use for paint-functional paintingethe considerations for which are quite separate from the previously accepted limitations of the uses.

The time-tested ways and means which have proved adequate for the protection and decoration of ordinary surfaces may be wholly unsuitable for special needs. These special needswhich may involve resistance to scores or even hundreds of different kinds of chemicals in various forms and exessive abrasions, bending, submersion, and fouling-are made by prescription to fulfill specified functions by formulators of specialized production and maintenance finishes in the paint, varnish, and lacquer industry.

While many of these specialized finishes are of great beauty, any attractiveness must be concurrent with the specialized factors.

Functional painting is rapidly becoming a must in progressive industrial establishments. Definite demonstrations that accidents are more frequent, eyestrain is increased, and headaches are multiplied, and consequent loss of manhours, and moral is lowered by neglect scientifically to apply painted color in conjunction with modern lighting equipment in plants, factories, stores, and offices have been convincing evidence that no good business man can afford continued losses compared with which the cost of functional painting is relatively inconseouential, to say nothing of the moral obligation to the Workers.

Some of the practices in industrial painting are (1) strategic painting of machines to emphasize dangerous moving parts, (2) providing the proper contrast between the color of the work in hand and the machine itself, (3) the elimination of glare, (4) the painting of floors white or light colors to refiect light upon the bottoms of planes, automobiles, or other things which require lighting from below while being worked upon, (5) painting offices to cause the apparent temperature to seem warmer or cooler and a variation of colors to relieve fatigue which may be increased by monotony.

Color and Safety

The value of a standard safety code has been borne out by the experiences of the Quartermaster Corps and the Army Service Forces depots which generally adopted such a code.

The idea of standardizing a safety color code originated in the ofiice of the Quartermaster General for use through the Quartermaster installations, because military personnel were frequently shifted from one installation to another, and new and untrained soldiers were constantly being assigned. By standardizing the code, its effectiveness is not lost Where labor turn-overs are large and employes move from one plant to another.

The Quartermaster depots, working at top speed under the pressure of war, presented a fertile field for accidents, but they were rapidly minimized, in some cases virtually eliminated, as the code was put into effect. Red, green, yellow, White, and black, and combinations thereof are the colors that were agreed upon for the standard code.

Red is the basic color for the identification of fire-protection equipment and apparatus, danger, and stop signals.

Green is the basic color designating safety, the location of first-aid equipment, first-aid dispensaries, starting buttons, the "golf for traffic, and all instances where safety is to be designated.

Yellow is the color used to designate caution and for making physical hazards more visible. Where local conditions call for a more striking symbol, black and and yellow stripes or a checkerboard effect is fused.

Black, White, or a combination of the two are the two basic colors for designating housekeeping, sanitation, and traffic markings.

The basic colors and their combinations have been kept to a minimum to avoid confusion that would result with too many different signals constantly in the vision. The code was designed with great care not to confiict with any already standardized symbols not in use.


The positive effects of color environment upon human mind and body is evidenced by the practical utilization of color as a therapeutic agent in modern

medical practice. . Owners of airlines and ocean-gomg passenger ships have discovered certain colors reudce the likelihood of air- or sea-sickness. For hospitals, elaborate color schemes have been devised for the rooms of patients with different types of ailments, both physical and mental. In at least one institution for the blind,
1950-51 Theatre Catalog, 9th Edition, Page 423