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1952 Theatre Catalog, 10th Edition, Page 11 (xi)

1952 Theatre Catalog, 10th Edition
1952 Theatre Catalog
1952 Theatre Catalog, 10th Edition, Page 11
Page 11

1952 Theatre Catalog, 10th Edition, Page 11

These units are shingles made of wood, asphalt, composition materials, asbestos cement, slate or tile. Wooden shingles generally are fashioned from red cedar or cypress. Creosote oil staining is used to add to the shingles durabiilty and to enhance its appearance. Asphalt shingles, generally cut to represent two or more shingles in a strip, are made from heavy roofing felt which is impregnated with asphalt, with the top surface coated with sand or small bits of crushed stone. Asbestos shingles, actually made of portland cement and sand concrete reinforced with shredded asbestos fiber, are pressed into thin slabs or different shapes and textures. All shingles are attached to the sheathing with roofing nails.

Pitched Roof

As a pitched roof gives a rapid runoff of water, any fissure which results in water leakage is usually fairly easy to spot. If wooden shingles have been used, shingles will have become loosened because of the rusting of the nails that retain them, or may have been blown off by the wind. On very old roofs, wooden shingles may be found to have curled excesssively or rotted to a point of uselessness.

There is almost no deterioration of asbestos cement, slate, tile or concrete shingle. and when leaks occur they are generally traceable to damage by flying obiects driven by strong winds.

After several years of service, asphalt shingles curl and warp, and the flint coating washes away. The felt base which retains the shingles loses its oils and binding compounds, so that surface fragments are easily carried away by the wind. Leaks are not easy to locate with this type of covering, and it is possible that large sections of roof covered in this manner may have to be replaced.


With all of the roofing materials mentioned above it is necessary to use metal for Hashing at chimneys, stacks, dormers and other elements of the roof which project vertically. Unless copper or aluminum have been used for flashings, painting is required at least every three to five years to prevent rusting accumulation. Where frequent freezing occurs, parapet walls should not be flashed from the roofs to the coping, as this will cause the inside of the fire wall that has been flashed to freeze the moisture-saturatml wall and expand on the flashed side, breaking loose the fire wall construction, and sometimes pushing the fire wall off the building at the level of the roof.

The important rule in installing flashings is to make certain that they seal the upper edges of all projections and divert rain and snow onto the roof or into the drainage elements. As copper does not require maintenance other than an inspection periodically to see that joints are soldered and the flashing is secure, it is the first choice for a flashing material. Galvanized sheet metal flashing must be painted every three years.


Other materials dfwoloped to simulate tiles or shingles include porcelain enameled sheeting, copper, aluminum and


other alloyed metals. If porcelain enamel is chipped, it may be painted to protect the exposed metal surface, but the color or brilliant finish of enamel cannot be duplicated, and the repair work is readily apparent.

Sheet metal with standing seams running in the direction of the slope of the roof. is sometimes used to cover highly pitched roofs. A variation of this type of covering is the batten type, where flat sheets are fitted in between wooden ribs and the turned-up edges as well as the ribs are covered with a batten or cover strip formed from crimped metal. Galvanized sheet steel and sheet copper are in widest use for this purpose, although tin-plated sheet steel and zinccoated steel are found in many installations. While copper may be allowed to oxidize and form its own protected

coating, tin-plated or zinc-plated steel will have to be painted every three or four years. Solder is used only for repair patches or where flat seams lie at the

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joints across the lengthwise runs of the metal.

Another development in roof structure is the use of V-ribs formed lengthwise from the zinc-coated or galvanized sheet steel in two, three or four crimpings per sheet and giving a lengthwise lap joint. These V-ribs are lapped where sheets are placed end to end so as to Shed water toward the eaves.

All sheet metal roof elements require a sheathing, either tightly formed or spaced to give support to the flat portions.

Several kinds of formed sheets of sufficient thickness and rigidity to span wider support elements running lengthwise along the roof have been developed, the most common form being the corrugated sheet, as the ripples or fluting give a high degree of rigidity for thin cross-sections. Least expensivo of this type is galvanized or zinc-coated sheet steel, and it is secured in place with clips or hook fasteners to metal purlins or

FIG. leFor Flat Roofs (above), or on those with an incline not exceeding 2 inches to 1 foot, this drawing gives the suggested construction plan of the Barrett Division of the Allied Chemical and Dye Corporation. To be used over cr deck of poured concrete or gypsum. Type AA. is of 4-ply construction. and, when installed according to the company's specifications, carries a 20-year guarantee. Over the roof deck which has been rid of dirt and loose material, and when dry, smooth. and firm. a "binder" layer of pitch is placed. and then (our plies of felt are laid down, on top of each going a moppinq of pitch. and over all, a final layer oi pitch into which gravel or slag is embedded.

FIG. Z-For Steep Roofs (below). on those with inclines over 3 inches. but not exceeding 9 inches. to l loot. this drawing shows the method of construction suggested by the Barren Division. It may be laid over a deck of either poured concrete or gypsum. First, the surface of the roof deck is given a priming coat. which is allowed to dry for not less than 6 hours before the application of the actual roofing. Then the entire surface is coated with asphalt roofing. Then the entire surface is coated with asphalt or S. I. S. cement. For cold application, two plies of lS-pound felt are laid over the entire surface of the roof at right angles to the incline. A coating oi S. I. S. cement is, of course. applied.

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1952 Theatre Catalog, 10th Edition, Page 11