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1952 Theatre Catalog, 10th Edition, Page 12 (xii)

1952 Theatre Catalog, 10th Edition
1952 Theatre Catalog
1952 Theatre Catalog, 10th Edition, Page 12
Page 12

1952 Theatre Catalog, 10th Edition, Page 12

with nails to wooden structural members. A highly satisfactory watershed is formed by lapping the corrugations lengthwise over the ends of succeeding units. As the zinc coating is not always uniformly thick, and it is sometimes difficult to protect the edges of the steel from rusting, painting is advised after it has been on the roof for about six months, and every three years thereafter.

Structures with steep roof sections are sometimes covered with cement tile with interlocking flanges which rest on the purlin members and is sealed with a waterproof, elastic cement. This joining material may harden and loosen, in which case it will have to be repaired with a plastic caulking compound forced into the crevices with a pressure gun. A tile slab made of thin cast iron with ribs and overlapping flanges, and used to span the space between the purlins, is quite durable and has been used extensively.

Flat Roofs

The flat roof is the most common type of all used on commercial structures. These always have a deck or continuous supporting structure having a slight slope, with guide humps or shoulders to direct water to the drainage elements, The slope may be from a quarter to two inches per foot.

Decks are usually constructed of the same material used in other parts of the building. When joists, beams and rafters are made of wood, the deck also is of wooden constructioon. Where reinforced concrete is used, the roof deck may be formed with supporting conocrete beams to the desired inclination.

Sheet steel panels with stiffening ribs or flanges which span the steel purlins are sometimes used in construction of the roof deck, and crickets are built up on this deck to guide the flow of water to the drainage outlets.

Where semiefire-retardant construction is desired, molded gypsum slabs with a sheet metal binding edge are used for the deck, as is a special concrete composed of porous or lightweight aggregates.

Roof Membranes

Over any type of flat deck, a membrane is formed by applying layers of roofing felt, alternating with layers of a bonding medium to make a continuous weatherproof covering over the whole surface of the roof. The life of the roof is based on the number of these felt layers, with the spans estimated at 10 years for a threeeply covering, 15 years for a four-ply covering, and 20 years for a five-ply covering. Before the membrane build-up is begun, the surface of a steel or solid concrete deck should be given a primer coat of one of a variety of bonding agents available.


With air conditioning in the building, it is mandatory that the roof be insulated to insure utmost efficiency of the air conditioning system. Insulation made of bonded cork, compressed fiber board and cellular glass in sheet, block or slab form is laid directly on the deck structure, with built-up roofing laid over the insulation. Each sheet of roofing membrane


is cemented by mopping the entire surface with the bonding agent and pressing the felt into it before it hardens. With a 32-inch felt, the lapping for a two-ply build-up would be 17 inches; for a three-ply lapping, 22 inches, and 241/; inches for a four-ply felt layer.

When a new roof is to be installed, it is a good idea to ask the roofing company for a surety bond guaranteeing the entire roof and not just the materials used. Any reputable roofing firm will use extreme care in the specifications of a roof they consider bonding.

Drainage Rainwater is drained down to the drainage outlets on the main roof

through eave troughs, leaders and downspouts, thus avoiding wash or wear from drip on the roof below. These drainage elements should be of sufficient size and number to carry away all of the water of the main roof so that the water will not accumulate above the level of the wall flashing. All roof drains should be fitted with screen heads which will prevent clogging of the leaders with leaves or paper, and should have secure flashing elements between them and the roof membrane. Exposed metal gutters, eave troughs, valleys and leaders should be cleaned two or three times a year, and. if made of metal which is subject to corrosion, should be wire-brushed and painted every two or three years.

All roof drains should be connected to sewers of sufficient capacity to carry a great amount of water. Steel sewer pipe should be extended at least 10 feet above the ground level, as lightly constructed downspouts are easily damaged when too close to the ground. Heavy guard rails must be placed around sewers connecting to downspouts in alleys or passageways. Where downspouts cannot be connected to sewers, it should be made certain that water is carried far enough away from the theatre building to prevent it from seeping into foundations and footings.

Rust Prevention

Stacks, ventilators, process exhausts, dust-collecting cones, and all exposed pipes require cleaning and renewal of protective coatings at least every two or three years. If fumes or corrosive gases are expelled through any of these ports, extra precautions may be required to combat the effects of chemical action.

If the roof structure includes a water storage tank and its supporting tower, more cleaning and painting is necessary. Wooden tanks with circular iron hoops and fittings should be coated with an inhibitive paint before the staves and other wooden parts are treated with linseed oil. All joints and fastening must be sealed with paint.

Spray System

Once the roof has been placed in topnotch condition, with special attention to the gutters, {lashings and drainage elements, it may be desirable to install a spray system on the roof to produce evaporative cooling and keep the space under the roof many degrees cooler than it would be ordinarily. This evaporative cooling is especially valuable if the water from the air conditioning systems condensing unit is not recirculated. A

pump and piping will be needed to spray this water over the roof. A cooling tower, evaporative condensor or spray pond to recover the water for use again in the condensors may be particularly essential if the cost of water in the area is high.


Comprising the theatre entrance, the signs, marquee, display frames, box office, vestibule and entrance doors serve not only to provide ready access and exit and to sell the program on the inside, but to create an attractive, pleasing atmosphere.

While the primary purpose of the marquee and outside signs is to distinguish the theatre and announce the current attraction, they must be so designed as to produce an aura of glamour and glitter, by day as well as after dark. Good proportion, modern design and pleasing color combinations accomplish this. The flashing on and off of such electrical elements of the sign as the signature and border catches the eye, and, incidentally, cuts the cost of electrical current usage.


there the remodeling budget is closely limited, as is often the case, it is a wise move to concentrate a large portion of the allotment on the theatre front, rather than. spread the funds thinly over a wide range of new interior equipment and furnishings. The front of the thealrc is its face; it most dramatically characterizes the house, and serves as an attraction of patronage. W'ith a new or remodeled marquee, bright new signs, entrance doors, boxogice and other jitlings, the theatre takes on an, obviously modernized appearance, even if the interior refurbishing is modestly scaled.



The two conventional types of signs in widest use are the vertical type with the theatres name and the attraction signs on the marquee, or only the latter with the theatre name displayed on the top or otherwise. The location of the theatre, its architectural scheme, and also the competitive display signs in the immediate vicinity will largely dictate what type of sign is best.

It should be noted that the side and front attraction signs on the marquee will be more easily read from every angle - directly down the street, from passing automobiles, and from the opposite side of the street if they are installed at an angle other than 90 degrees from the front of the theatre, and converge toward the center.

Sign Lighting

The theatreman has three types of lighting to consider in the choice of theatre signs e decorative lighting, illumination for changeable letters, and the lighting of the marquee soffit or ceiling.

The most important of these is the i1lumination behind the changeable letters, and to insure the best possible

1952 Theatre Catalog, 10th Edition, Page 12