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1953-54 Theatre Catalog, 11th Edition, Page 244 (208)

1953-54 Theatre Catalog, 11th Edition
1953-54 Theatre Catalog
1953-54 Theatre Catalog, 11th Edition, Page 244
Page 244

1953-54 Theatre Catalog, 11th Edition, Page 244

cannot accommodate itself to such an increase in costs.

The American companies nevertheless ignored these objections. One saw appear in America, the country of ttstandardization," a clear tendency to suppress the old universal 35mm film.

In May 1929, Paramount showed at the Rivoli in New York its ffmagnafilm" (56mm wide strip). In September 1929, Fox Film showed at the Gaiety Theatre its picture ttGrandeurjl (70mm wide strip). Other widths of 62mm and 65mm were proposed. Several great pictures on widened film were ready to make their appearance on the market.

The battle promised to be long and hard, it put into action immense capital, divergent interests, and comparable antagonistic powers.

It was in this epoch that the American economic crisis arrived, and the pursuit of this program was abandoned.


Solution By Anamorphosis

During the half century that it has existed, the motion picture has reached an impregnable position; it seems now practically impossible to make it leave this position by complicated modifications of the photographic equipment and above all projection equipment.

Having been keenly impressed by the considerable impression which the panoramic scenes produced on the public during the presentation of the film "Napoleoni' by Abel Gance, we have believed that a transformation by means of anamorphosing the images, which we had studied previously in order to resolve certain technical military problems, could yield a more practical and immediate solution to the problem.

What does a photographer do when he wishes to include a larger field of view in his plate? He chooses a shorter focal length objective, but then he encumbers nis held in the dimension of height with a larger expanse of sky or of foreground.

The ideal solution would be to have an objective of which the focal length would be, for example, half the focal length in the horizontal direction as in

the vertical direction, or Vice Versa. This solution would appear to be, a priori, a geometric impossibility. Let us examine, however, all the implications. The images which would be produced by such an objective would be an anamorphosed reproduction of the object with two different dimensional scales, one for the height, one for width.

Here let us recall the mirrors which we see in the amusement parks where our own refiection is foreshortened or lengthened according to the direction of the mirror curvature.

The procedure proposed here is of the same kind. We can see immediately the advantages of recording on film under conditions of their restoration on the screen such images extended in width or even in height. ,

But is it possible to build efliciently optical equipment corresponding to this program?

In deforming mirrors the useful opening of the Viewing instrument, which is the pupil of the eye, is only a few millimeters, which makes the image quality that these mirrors give seem of sufficiently good quality. But if one wanted to photograph them with lenses of large opening such as are required for motion picture photography, we would see that they are subject to all sorts of intolerable defects, particularly astigmatism. It is thus necessary to study special optical systems in order to achieve the precision required by images capable of enormous enlargement on the motion picture screens.

Description of the Hypergonar

The Hypergonars which we have built are of two types:

ttHypergonarli for picture taking.

ttHypergonarll for projection.

They differ only in their dimensions and their mountings.

From the optical point of View, they consist of two separately achromatized systems: a converging system consisting of two lenses, cemented together, and a diverging system consisting of three lenses, cemented together.

In the case of taking pictures, focusing is accomplished in accordance with

the distance of the subject, by means of a spiral shaped shaft and the help of a distance calibration. This does not alter in the least bit focusing of the camera: one may thus go immediately from taking ordinary pictures to taking pane oramic pictures, and vice versa.

In the case of projection, the Hypergonar is adjusted once and for all in accordance with the distance of the screen, by means of a helical rack and pinion. The best fashion in which to proceed with this adjustment seems to us to be the following. One projects on the screen a checker-board pattern formed by white arrows on a black background, vertical and horizontal. One focuses with the projector objective. One inserts the Hypergonar and turns it. in such a way as to restore the lines of the checker-board to the vertical and to the horizontal, respectively. The horizontal lines have retained their fineness. By turning the pinion of the focusing device of the Hypergonar one brings the verticals into maximum clearness. The apparatus is adjusted. It has to be stated that the interposition of the Hypergonar does not modify the definition on the screen.

The exposure time is thus not changed in the camera.

In projection the screen brightness is reduced proportionately to the enlargement of the anamorphic attachment, since one lights a larger surface, and not in proportion to its square (as it would be the case if the image were enlarged in all directions).

The loss of light occasioned by the introduction of the anamorphic attachments is insignihcant: it is the consecutive interposition of only two supplementary lenses, as each of the two systems of which Hypergonar consists is formed by cemented lenses. In addition the exterior surfaces of each system are treated with anti-reflection coating.

The eifect is the same way in regard to the grain of the film, and that advantage is very appreciable.

PROOF THAT CinemuScope can handle closeups ls offered by this picture of Marilyn Monroe in ZUIh-Fox's film "How to Marry a Millionaire."

1953-54 Theatre Catalog, 11th Edition, Page 244