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1953-54 Theatre Catalog, 11th Edition, Page 263 (227)

1953-54 Theatre Catalog, 11th Edition
1953-54 Theatre Catalog
1953-54 Theatre Catalog, 11th Edition, Page 263
Page 263

1953-54 Theatre Catalog, 11th Edition, Page 263

IN THE ILLUSTRATION on. the right can be seen a drawing depicting an improved single film method with the images turned on their sides.

author has made such films using only one camera, and making only one negative. Two prints were made from these single negatives and projected in interlock on two machines. However, the prints were projected with one print having its frames displaced in relation to those of the other. The number of frames displaced is governed by the planes elevation above the ground and above the nearest object, in scenes looking straight down. Frame displacement is also governed by the ground speed of the plane. A plane flying at 100 miles per hour will cover 144 feet a second, which means that six feet is covered in every second for a film speed of 24 frames a second. A full reel was made during flights over New York City, the camera pointing straight down. The plane was down at 2500 feet, and slowmotion photography of 96 frames 21 second was used.


I; m,


DIAGRAM of fundamental "grid system" for 3-D.

A film speed of 96 frames a second with a plane speed of 100 miles per hour gives one and one-half feet of advance along the course as registered by every D X d r 50 D i d ' t established the base of the interaxial that would result in the most startling visual effect with the least eyestrain. The farthest plane, D, the ground; the nearest plane, d, the top of the Empire State building; and the divisor, 50, indicated an interaxial base of 40 feet and this was achieved synthetically by a displacement of one film with the other of 30 frames. Actually, a displacement of 15 frames was finally selected to give the most satisfactory results.

Some stereo shots were made up in this way from stock footage taken from a plane flying over the Andes. This plane

frame. Using the equation

ILLUSTRATING AN arrangement that provides equal illumination for both images by using I: partially transmitting mirror.


was fiying about 180 miles an hour and the exposures were made at normal camera speed. The camera pointed horizontally toward the distant mountains. The most startling of these shots was one that included ffThe Christ of the Andes." This heroic statue was in the middle distance and stood out in vivid relief against the mountain beyond. There is one thing that creates quite a problem: any unsteadiness in the airplane's fiight. This comes out in the projection as a constantly changing vertical and horizontal, and sometimes rotational displacement between the images. Such displacements existed in the films we made and had to be eliminated by optical duping methods involving a complexity of steps. But it was an interesting experiment and worth the trouble.

The Vectograph

Vectograph is the name applied to a clear plastic sheet on which an image may be rendered in terms of varying degrees of polarization, and viewed through a polarizing filter. The vectograph can accommodate an image on both its sides, and each image can be made to have its axis of polarization at right angles to that of the other. A stereo vectograph has the images of a stereo pair printed respectively on top and bottom of a vetograph sheet, and is viewed through polarizing spectacles with its respective windows having polarizing axes corresponding to those of the Vectograph images. In slide form, the three-dimensional vetograph can be shown in a standard monocular projector

without filters. As in other systems using polarized light, silver non-depolarizing screen and polarizing viewing spectacles are required.

During World War II the threedimensional vectograph was used by the armed services for aerial reconnaissance and for training personnel in various skills. Other uses for this novel, paperthin stereo picture will doubtless be found. Its picture quality is excellent and its ease of handling and processing are distinct advantages for any photographic process.

Three Dimensionul Pictures

and Television

Inevitably today, any new method of visual presentation both still and motion, can be telecast. As a matter of fact, an experimental stereo-television system has been at work in the Argonne National Laboratories. It permits an operator to keep a precise watch over the "hot" materials he is handling by remote control. Equipped with a pair of viewing spectacles and with eyes glued to a pair of television screen images which are transmitted by a binocular television camera, the operator does get a threedimensional impression. But the problems involved in presenting satisfactory threedimensional television to the public may be so very great that, by comparison, the problems of introducing color television have been small indeed. It is anybody's guess when stereo television will enjoy a widespread audience; if the history of stereo movies can provide a clue, the time is many years away.

1953-54 Theatre Catalog, 11th Edition, Page 263