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1954-55 Theatre Catalog, 12th Edition, Page 191 (155)

1954-55 Theatre Catalog, 12th Edition
1954-55 Theatre Catalog
1954-55 Theatre Catalog, 12th Edition, Page 191
Page 191

1954-55 Theatre Catalog, 12th Edition, Page 191

pearance and in light distribution. Heatresistant, blown bulbs are more expensive, however, because of the difficulty in tfworkingii this type of glass in ordinary lamp manufacturing processes. This glass will withstand greater thermal shocks, such as that from moisture on the hot bulb, They will also withstand greater strains which are likely to cause lamp failure when shielding louvers or color accessories are supported directly by the bulb. Reflector lamps are not intended to support accessories. Better practice is to use devices which support color frames, louvers, or other accessories separate from the lamp. These devices are usually fastened to the socket or lamp housing.

The R-52 lamps, in 500 and 750 watts, were especially designed for high-mounting in industrial areas. These lamps have recently become popular, particularly in flat-ceilinged auditoriums, for use as white house lights. The housings for these lamps are flush-mounted in the ceiling and the lamps are used as downlights.

A newer group of reflector lamps which can be very useful in the theatre are the reflector color lamps. These lamps, similar to the conventional reflectorized lamps with a built-in reflector, have a permanent, baked-on color filter. They represent an important advance in the field of colored lighting because their colors form a balanced compatible group. There are six colors available. Four of theseered, yellow, green, and blue -are highly saturated and are considered basic colors. There are also two lighter colors or tints--pink and bluewhite. The four basic colors are equally spaced as to hue and will therefore form complimentary pairs. There are harmonious colors: strong, clean, attractive and satisfying. The two tints on the other hand will produce complexionflattering, warm or cool light.

Color Combinations

A great variety of colors and effects can easily be obtained with combinations of the six colors from the reflector color lamps. Mixtures of two colors can produce useful, intermediate hues. As an example, yellow and red combine to produce amberered and blue make magenta or purple. When yellow is combined with blue, or blue-white in the


A TRIO of popular reileclor lamp sizes (left) are the 75. 150. and 300 watt lamps. The PAR [50 watt lamp (right) comes in two convenient sizes. The PAR-38 flood and R40 spot (below).

proper proportions, white light is obtained. Two or more colors may easily be used in this manner to produce a third color. But, if two colors are used from opposite directions on a threedimensional object, as is so often done in the theatre, they will not only combine to produce another color on the object, but they will also cause very interesting shadows behind it. As can be seen, there are untold uses for these reHector color lamps in the theatre.


Projector lamps are similar in construction to the familiar all-glass Sealed Beam automobile headlamps. The reflector section, of heat-resistant glass, is formed by pressing in an accurate mold. A smooth coating of aluminum is then evaporated onto the inside surface. To the reflector is fused the heat-resistant glass cover plate or lens, likewise formed by pressing in an accurate mold. Aluminum is used as the reflector because it withstands the high temperature required when the lens is fused to the reflector. Beam, pattern depends on redector contour and lens design.

The introduction of the two piece construction idea was indeed revolutionary after over half a century of conventional lamp making methods. The pressed or molded glass construction not only allows more precision in bulb reflectorcontour and filament positioning, but also permits prefabrication testing of both. The sealed-in reflector and lens combination results in higher efliciency and better control of light than with reflector lamps. The increased light output efliiciency, the higher beam candlepower, and the special beam patterns obtainable from PAR lamps, often more than offset their higher cost as compared to reflector lamps.

Many Advancements Made

A great many advancements have been made with PAR lamps since the original 150-watt PAR spot and flood lamps. Not the least of these was the introduction of the compact PAR-38 lamp. While the lamp itself is only one-inch shorter than the conventional PAR-38, it has a side prong base. This base eliminates the need for the conventional shell type of socket and often reduces the overall length of lamp and socket by as much as two inches. This type of lamp is excellent for a location where a concentrated beam of light is needed, but where the space is not available for the conventional type of redector or projector lamp. After the side-prong PAR-38 was introduced, the side prong PAR-46 and the end prong PAR-56 lamps were added to complete the line. These lamps are usually supported by their rim (that part of the lamp at which the lens is sealed to the reflector). Most of the equipment available for housing the side and end prong PAR lamps makes use of this fact.

The ZOO-watt, PAR-46 lamp is available only as a spot lamp. Its concentrated beam provides a lamp with excellent light control. The 300-watt, PAR-56 lamp is not only available with a concentrated spot beam, but also as a flood lamp. This flood lamp is the newest. By means of prisms, built into the lens, this lamp produces a rectangular beam of light; just the thing for rectangular A-boards and other types of displays. A banner hanging above the marquee, possibly from the vertical sign, can be very effectively illuminated with PAR
1954-55 Theatre Catalog, 12th Edition, Page 191